Blood tests can differentiate between muscle and nerve conditions.
Using a fine fibre optic endoscope, the contents of a joint cavity can be examined. This is particularly useful in medium and large breed dogs.
Joint (Synovial) Fluid Analysis
Analysis of joint fluid helps differentiate between infection, inflammation and immune conditions.
Plain x-rays diagnose fractures and dislocations. Contrast x-rays outline joints and the spinal cord.
CT and MRI scans, although costly are extremely useful for outlining disc slippages abd the extent of tumours.
Electromyogram - Emg
An EMG records electrical activity in resting or working muscles.
Examination of a biopsy specimen under the microscope helps determine the exact cause of an abnormality.
Nuclear scintigraphy using radioactive isotopes is used at Cambridge University to picture bone and its surrounding tissue.